GWP - THE PETROL PROBLEM

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Geophysics has always been related to the exploitation of Natural Resources

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion 1997
We can see that 50% of CO2 emitted in the world comes from only four countries: USA, China, Russia and Japan

PLACE

COUNTRY

CO2
Millions Tonnes

% WORLD

CO2 per capita
Tonnes

1USA5 47024%20.6
2China3 12114%2.6
3Russia1 4566%9.8
4Japan1 1735%9.3
5Germany8844%10.8
6India8814%0.9
7United Kingdom5552%9.4
8Canada4772%16.3
9Italy4242%7.4
10Korea4222%17.7

Petrol Production in the 21st Century

A) The seismic prospection allows to get a 3D image where petrol (brown), water (blue) and gas (yellow) can be distinguished. A geophones serie captures the underground noises generated by artificial microseism. These data are sent to a computer, where they are soon processed to get a final map.

B) The production wells scatter bags of crude of the wells when extracting water and gas. The seismic prospection allows assembling the dates in a 4D model, showing the petrol, gas and water distribution in the space and time (predictions) Unfortunately, the seismic weeping fails when petrol is in a very tough rock or under saline layers (white stratum)

C) The CO2 injection permits to rejuvenate dying wells, so the pressure pushes the remaining pétrol to operative wells. Water and natural gas can also be used. The future "inteligent wells" are going to decide where to extract the petrol from and where to inject water of the crude stream from.

04/01/2001

INCREDIBLE!: USA, THE MAIN POLLUTING COUNTRY IN THE WORLD, REJECTS THE KYOTO PROTOCOL ABOUT CLIMATIC CHANGE

The 15 EU Ministers of Environment, showed their disposition to ratify and carry out the 1997 Kyoto Protocol despite of George Bush decision of not to ratify it. We must remember that if everithing continues to happen as it is, the temperature of the planet is going to increase in 1.5°C for year 2100, what is going to bring as a result ill fated consequences for mankind (climatic change)

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How much petrol does it remain?

  • Reserves: The statistics are taken from "Oil and Gas Journal" and "World Oil" . The data have been overestimated so through these mechanism the producer country may export more crude. Corrected calculation: With a certainty of 50% there are 850 Gbo
  • To discover: Certainly, there is a finite amount of crude. The 90% has already been found and 150 Gbo are left to be discovered
  • Extraction rhythm: It is not constant. M. King Hurbbert proved that the maximum will be reached when the 50% of the resource gets exploited. By extrapolation, this maximum will be reached in 2010.

The decline in the production will put up the prices...


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MYSTERY:
How does the underground drilling platforms work?